## Abstract

Total energy comparison (TEC), classic energy intensity (CEI), and linear regression models (LRM) are the three most common approaches used to track the energy performance of manufacturing facilities. TEC simply compares the total energy consumption from utility bills. TEC is rarely used because it does not consider the variation of any factors that may affect energy consumption. One step better, CEI considers the variation of production rates by using the ratio of annual total energy consumption over annual total production. However, CEI fundamentally assumes that energy consumption is zero if the production rate is zero. This is almost never true and can cause significant errors. Using linear regression models, LRM considers the impact of multiple variables and, therefore, most accurately tracks energy performance. Unfortunately, because of the lack of either required data or technical expertise, some facilities cannot create valid linear regression models. For these cases, CEI is the only option. The goal of this article is to develop a new methodology, modified energy intensity (MEI), which is more accurate than CEI, but requires much less data and is easier to implement than LRM. Using the underlying principle of LRM, this article first outlines the mathematical derivation of the equations for MEI, then explains them from an engineering perspective. Finally, the implementation of MEI is discussed.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 7-21 |

Number of pages | 15 |

Journal | Energy Engineering: Journal of the Association of Energy Engineering |

Volume | 116 |

Issue number | 2 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Feb 1 2019 |

### Funding

This work was supported by the Advanced Manufacturing Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

## Keywords

- classic energy intensity
- energy efficiency
- energy management
- energy performance tracking
- linear regression model
- manufacturing facility
- modified energy intensity